Marine geology is the study of the seafloor; involves geophysical, geochemical, sedimentological and paleontological investigations of the ocean floor and continental marine coastal margins, marine geology has strong ties to physical oceanography and plate tectonics for any cost differences b/w nodule and laterite mining including survey of the origin, structure and stratigraphys.
Marine Geology is a specialized area, related to plate tectonics and dwells mostly on geophysical, sedimentalogical, geochemical and paleontological investigations of the ocean floor and coastal margins.
Marine Geology, Mine Environment, Sediment coring Shallow Marine in Active Ports Marinas and River bed investigations, Mineral Economics! State of the art about the geology and geophysics for the exploration of marine mineral resources over different geological settings, characterizing also the environmental studies associated with mining activities and legal aspects on the exploration of the oceans.
Contributing to the global discussions on marine conservation, the Biological Diversity (CBD) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature, and provides regional approaches to protecting the marine environment and managing natural resources.
- Maintains critical linkages for geoscience development.
- Geological delineation of extended continental shelves.
- drafting policies involving coastal and marine geosciences.
- Assessment of coastal marine areas adjoining abandoned inactive mines.
- conduct research in relation to occurrences offshore mineral deposit and genesis.
- gather geological & geophysical data and information with essential geoengineering applications.
- providing technical services with respect to coastal and marine engineering geology and geohazard assessments.
- conduct coastal & offshore geohazard mapping & recommend mitigation & risk management measures to concerned entities.
- undertake geoscientific survey of offshore areas in support to the government claim over an extended continental shelves.
- explore & assess the mineral resource potential of the country’s coastal and offshore areas including the exclusive economic zone (EEZ).
- providing technical services in relation to the regulation monitoring (e.g. evaluation of ExWP, Exploration Reports, etc.) of offshore mining/quarrying.
- marine geological/geophysical surveys for coastal offshore geohazard assessment, sea level rise mineral resource exploration, geo-engineering and geoenvironmental issues.
Industrial minerals produced in Pakistan include limestone, salt, gypsum and aragonite; and metallic minerals mined include bauxite, iron ore and copper. The mining and mineral industry as a whole employed 1.6% of the labour force in 2009.